Blackjack – (from English Blackjack ) one of the most famous card gambling in the world. Included in the “classic three” casino games: roulette, poker and blackjack – usually offered in many land-based gambling houses on the planet, as well as in online casinos on the Internet. The main goal of the blackjack game is to score on your cards the number of points as close to 21 as possible, but no more, and (or) wait for the dealer to have more than 21 points, which will give the player an automatic win.
Classic Blackjack Rules
Almost any casino offers a blackjack game today, however, in each particular institution, not only the minimum and maximum rates of the table bets may differ, but also part of the generally accepted rules. To attract players in a competitive environment, some casinos make various changes to the classical rules, giving players a little more advantages and freedom of action. There are also independent varieties of blackjack, with well-established names and differing from the classics by the different number of cards in the deck, the size of bonus payments or the principle of seniority of combinations.
In any case, the game against the casino takes place at a table on the canvas of which boxes for players’ bets are marked with rectangles. There are blackjack tables with the number of boxes from 7 to 12. Accordingly, one or more players can take part in the game, each player has the right to place bets on any number of free boxes and thus play several hands at once. All cards are dealt face up. Initially, the croupier deals two cards for each box with a bet and one card for himself. Then, in turn, a set of cards for the boxes takes place, after which the croupier collects cards for himself. Players do not compete with each other in any way, the goal of the game is to defeat the croupier in each player on their boxes.
Denomination values in classic blackjack
A classic blackjack game is considered to be a game against a casino on a deck of 312 cards (six standard decks of 52 sheets). The player strives to score the maximum number of points not exceeding 21, in the case of busting – the player’s hand is immediately considered to be the loser and the bet goes to the casino bank, regardless of whether the dealer has busting.
Card suits in blackjack are not taken into account. Cards from two to nine, when calculating points – correspond to their numerical values (two – 2 points, three – 3, etc.). Dozens and all cards with pictures (jacks, ladies, kings) – give 10 points each. Aces can count for 1 or 11 points. When calculating points on hands with aces, the maximum possible amount of points is selected, not exceeding 21. When the ace can be counted simultaneously for 1 and 11 points, and in both cases there is no bust (more than 21 points) – the hand is called “soft”. A “tight” hand is considered to be a hand in which an ace can be considered only for 1 point, otherwise there is a bust.
“First two” – the first pair of cards is dealt, distributed by the dealer to each playing box before the player begins the process of collecting cards. When the first two cards are an ace and any card with a value of 10 points, this combination is called “blackjack” and is the oldest in the game. A set of cards in hand with blackjack is not possible.
A blackjack hand is older than any hand, even with a set of cards equal to 21 points. If the dealer’s first card is not an ace and not a dozen (that is, it is impossible for the dealer to “blackjack”), all boxes with a blackjack combination are immediately paid 3 to 2 (1.5 to 1). In other cases, payment is made according to the results of a dealer’s card collection. An ace with a dozen on the first two dealer cards is also considered blackjack. In such a situation, on all players’ boxes, where there is also a “blackjack” – a draw occurs, the remaining boxes lose.
Insurance and equal money.
When the dealer turns out to be the ace with the first card, he offers the players insurance against his possible blackjack. In this situation, before the start of the collection of cards for the boxes, the player can place a bet on a special field in an amount not exceeding half the amount of his bets on the boxes. Such a separate bet is called “insurance”, and in the case of a dealer “blackjack”, it is paid 2 to 1, or loses if any ten do not come to the dealer’s ace.
The blackjack of the player is not insured. When the dealer’s ace is the first card and the “blackjack” player – before starting the set of cards, the dealer must offer the player “equal money” – or pay the “blackjack” immediately 1 to 1. Having refused the “equal money”, the player can remain with his money, in the case of “blackjack” at the dealer (draw), or receive a 3 to 2 payout if the dealer did not collect blackjack.
Dealer Card Order
After completing the procedure for collecting cards for all playing boxes by players, the dealer collects cards for himself. There is a strict rule, which is often even written in English on the playing table cloth: “The dealer must pick up a card at 16 or less, or stop at 17 (or more) points.” Upon completing the set of cards for himself, the croupier compares the number of points of his own combination with the result on each of the playing boxes – and either takes the losing bets or pays them 1 to 1. In the case of equal combinations between the player and the dealer, a draw occurs, that is, the bet does not lose, but also not paid. The croupier can also have a bust, in this case, all remaining bets on the boxes win in the game.
Splitting (splitting paired cards in blackjack)
When the first two cards on the player’s box are of equal face value, the dealer offers him the opportunity to add a bet equal to the original one and divide the box into two separate hands, continuing the collection of cards for each hand separately.
If, after splitting, a pair of equal cards again appears on the hand, the player has the right to add a bet again and split the cards again. Some casinos may limit the number of consecutive splits for one box, for example, no more than three or four times.
The possibility of splitting exists for any pair of identical cards at face value, however splitting a pair of aces differs in that in this case the player can split only once and receive only one card for each ace.
If a player splits a couple of tens, or a pair of aces, and at the same time hands are formed with a combination of an ace and a ten – all such combinations are counted for 21 points, and not “blackjack” – which is possible only on the first two cards from the deal, before the start of the collection of cards on boxes.
Double and double bet on the first two cards
The player has the right to double the bet on the first two cards, while receiving only one card for this box. In most casinos, a double is possible only with combinations of the first two cards equal to 9, 10, or 11 points, including “soft” hands with aces, except for an ace with a dozen, which immediately give blackjack, or 21 points in case of splitting.
Surenda, or refusal of the game
Prior to the start of the set of cards, the player can refuse to play on any box by announcing the heyrend (in English, surrender – means “I am giving up”) and losing half of the bet made. Typically, the croupier himself must offer the shrend to the players when he has ten. If the dealer’s first ace-range card is not possible, the player can only insure their bets against a possible blackjack at the dealer.
Different options and bonuses for classic blackjack
Often, to further attract players, casinos can slightly change some of the rules of the game. Usually this gives players more freedom of action, or even increases their mathematical advantage against the casino.
The following variations of classical rules are widely known:
Double on any two cards – the ability to double the bet on the first two cards is not limited to the sum of their denominations of 9, 10 and 11 points.
Triple – an opportunity for a player to deliver a bet equal to the initial one after a double. And at the same time get another card to box
The dealer continues the set of cards on the “soft” 17. In situations when an ace is present in the dealer’s card set, at 17 points he stops exclusively on the “hard” hand.
Increase in opportunities and limits for insurance. When the dealer has an ace, the maximum insurance rate is set separately and is not limited to half the amount of the player’s bets. Some casinos with an ace from a dealer allow betting on insurance from “blackjack” to any visitor who is in the gaming room, even if he did not make bets at the blackjack table in this distribution.
Golden point. This is the name of a pair of aces on the first two cards, when it counts as the maximum combination that wins even “blackjack”
Three sevens. Having collected a combination of 21 points out of three sevens on any of the hands, in many casinos the player is usually awarded with an additional bonus, for example, a bottle of champagne, or another prize.
Suited Blackjack. If an ace and a card with a face value of tens turn out to be predetermined by the rules of the same suit, the payout of the winnings may be 2 to 1.
Seven-Card Charlie (7-card Charlie) – in the case of a player collecting seven cards without any search on one of his hands, such a hand wins any combination, even the dealer’s blackjack. Also, sometimes “five-” and “six-card Charlie” can be separately rewarded – that is, five and six cards without busting, respectively.
Blackjack side bets
Also, in order to attract players, some casinos may introduce the possibility for players to make various additional bets, usually playing regardless of the main bets made on the boxes:
Perfect Pair (Perfect Pair) – this is the name of the bet that the player from the distribution will collect on the box a pair of identical two cards. There is also an independent version of the game of blackjack with the same name
Ace Jackpot – a bet that a player and a dealer on four dealt cards will receive two or more aces. The maximum win (jackpot) here is usually paid for 4 aces of the same color or suit.
Hi-Low 13 (Hi / Low 13) – the player bets on whether the sum of his first two cards will be less, more or equal to 13 points.
Suited Bonus – a bet that the player will receive the first two cards of the same suit.
Independent blackjack options other than classic
The game of pallets turned out to be so popular that over time a lot of its individual varieties arose, with quite different rules, but the general name and invariable principle of cards up to 21 points. The most popular of these varieties are listed below.
European blackjack. The rules of this game are similar to the classic. The game differs only in that the European blackjack uses a deck of 104 cards (two standard decks of 52 sheets). The rules for counting cards and dialing them by the dealer remain the same, the player is also offered splitting, double, currencies and insurance with an ace from the dealer.
Vegas Blackjack – as the name implies, a variation of the game has American roots and is practiced in land based casinos in Nevada. They play Vegas Blackjack on a 104-card deck. In American variations of the game, the dealer usually deals two cards at once, one of which is held face down before the end of the game round. The rest of the rules are identical to the classic blackjack, however, there is one important difference in situations when the dealer’s open card is 10 or ace. In such cases, the dealer looks at his second face-down card, and if he has “blackjack” – players do not collect cards, all hands of players who do not have “blackjack” lose.
Atlantic City Blackjack is also the North American version of the game, popular in Atlantic City land-based casinos. Like Vegas-Bledzhek, in the case of an open 10 or an ace at the dealer, immediately checks for “blackjack”. The game involves 416 cards, or 8 standard decks of 52 sheets.
Blackjack Switch This variety is mainly offered in online casinos. In this version, the game is played on six standard decks and simultaneously on two boxes. The player is allowed to exchange between themselves the top two cards on a pair of hands after the first deal. Since the blackjack combination under such conditions occurs much more often, in the Blackjack switch, it is always paid 1 to 1. The dealer stops his set of cards with a soft hand of 17 points. The game also has an additional Super Match bet, which is accepted before the start of the set of cards, and depends on the coincidence of the face values of the first four cards on the player’s two hands. A matched pair is paid 1 to 1, three cards of the same value – 5 to 1, payout in the case of two pairs – will be 8 to 1, and 4 identical cards are paid – 40 to 1.
Perfect couple. This separate version of blackjack is played on five standard decks (a total of 260 cards) and offers an additional “Perfect Pair” bonus bet. If the player receives the first two cards of the same value and suit, this bonus bet wins and is paid 25 to 1.
Pontoon. The English version of the game is 21. Pontoon has similar rules with blackjack, but is distributed mainly in Australia, some Asian countries and in the UK itself. In the pontoon, the highest combination is 777, which can be paid up to 5 to 1. Pontoon, that is, the ace and ten are paid in this game 2 to 1, and the five-card trick (five cards without busting) is 3 to 2. Moreover, in the pontoon lacks all the “tens” cards (only dozens. Jacks, ladies and kings participate in the game and are evaluated at ten points each).
Spanish blackjack. Among all others, this kind of blackjack is the most different from the classic game rules. For the game, 8 decks of cards are used here, but these are not the usual standard decks of 52 sheets, but the so-called “Spanish” decks, the number of 48 cards each. It should be noted that the mathematical advantage of the casino over the players in this kind of game is much higher than in the classic blackjack.
The rest of the rules are similar to the classics, with the difference that a player can “split” the first cards three times, that is, play immediately for 4 hands. Also, sometimes the game takes into account the suit of the cards and for some individual combinations, the player is provided with additional prize payments:
21 points on 5 cards – paid 3: 2
21 points on 6 cards – 2: 1 payout
21 points on 7 or more cards – 3: 1 payout
Unsuited 6-7-8 and 7-7-7 – 3: 2 payout
Suited 6-7-8 and 7-7-7 – 2: 1 payout
Peak 6-7-8 or 7-7-7 – 3: 1 payout
Suited 7-7-7 when the dealer is open 7 – payout 50: 1
To diversify and entertain their visitors, many land-based and online casinos organize blackjack tournaments. According to the original rules of blackjack, the player has the opportunity to compete exclusively with the casino represented by the dealer. (Translated from English, dealer – just means the “representative” of the institution). Blackjack tournaments give players the opportunity to play blackjack against the dealer, at the same time, competing among themselves with the effectiveness of the game.
At the beginning of the tournament, each participant makes an entry fee and receives the same number of game tournament chips. Further, the game can be played in several rounds, for the elimination of players with the smallest bank, or there is a time limit. The winner of the tournament is the player who has shown the best result of the game in terms of money. Sometimes there can be more than one prize place.
Since tournaments require several free gaming tables at once, not every land-based casino is capable of hosting regular blackjack tournaments for a large number of interested participants. However, for virtual casinos, the constant holding of tournaments for the broad masses of players – does not present any difficulty, and online blackjack tournaments – have long become familiar gambling entertainment on the Internet.
The history of the emergence and development of blackjack
Blackjack “ancestor”, a card game of 21 (or 31) points – did not originate on the American continent, but from there migrated to casinos around the world. At the same time, games called “thirty-one” and “twenty-one” – were popular in different countries of Europe long before the United States and the opening of a casino in Nevada. All varieties of such games arose on the American continent only with the appearance of the first European immigrants here.
In France of the 17th century, among all the classes of the population of the country, from simple peasants to persons of the royal family – the game “Vingt et Un” was widely popular – which translates as “twenty-one.” This particular version of the game is generally considered to be the closest ancestor of blackjack. However, the French game of 21 points was preceded by the equally popular card games Chemin de Fer and French Ferme – very similar by the rules, but known almost a century earlier. Italian literature of the early 15th century also mentions and describes the card game “Trentuno” (“thirty-one”). The principle of this game is similar to the rules of the game in “21”, with the only difference being that the player started the set with three, not two cards. And the maximum possible points without busting was taken as 31. A popular game with similar rules and name, Spanish historical documents from the 15th century are also described. And in the 17th century, the famous Spanish writer Cervantes mentioned the game “Veintiuno” in his work. Its name also translates as “21” and speaks for itself. Of card games with a scoring principle similar to blackjack, the Italian game Sette e mezzo (Seven and a Half) is also worth mentioning. It has been played from the 17th century to this day. The name of the game habitually corresponds to the maximum number of points before the search, the deck consists of 40 cards. Cards with “pictures” here are considered half the point, the king of clubs is a joker. It is also worth mentioning the Italian game “Sette e mezzo” (Seven and a half). It has been played from the 17th century to this day. The name of the game habitually corresponds to the maximum number of points before the search, the deck consists of 40 cards. Cards with “pictures” here are considered half the point, the king of clubs is a joker. It is also worth mentioning the Italian game “Sette e mezzo” (Seven and a half). It has been played from the 17th century to this day. The name of the game habitually corresponds to the maximum number of points before the search, the deck consists of 40 cards. Cards with “pictures” here are considered half the point, the king of clubs is a joker.
Thus, the exact information about where and when the blackjack prototype was invented is lost in the depths of the history of medieval Europe. However, the place, time and reason for the origin of the current name of the game are known for certain – these are gambling houses in the USA of the 19th century. At this point, a separate version of the game “21” was already offered, with the rules converted to a game against the institution.
To increase the popularity of such a game, the owners of the casino made individual combinations of the first two cards as prize money and began to pay them higher than a simple win 1 to 1. The largest combination then was considered the combination of jack and ace of spades, which was called “Black Jack” (literally: “black jack “) – it was she who gave the name to the new version of the game.
In a later version of the rules, which is now considered to be classic, the maximum combination of cards continues to be called “blackjack” and pay 3 to 2, that is, one and a half times more expensive. Only the jack for the ace – now any ten can play, and the card suits – completely lost any value in the game.
Blackjack dictionary and terminology used at the gaming table
Since the generally accepted version of blackjack has developed in American casinos, most of the terms of the game are a translation or a transcription of English words.
Bankroll (bankroll) – the bank (budget) of the player allocated to the game.
Bankroll Management (bankroll management, bank management) – a special list of rules and principles for the competent spending of the game bank.
Blackjack (blackjack, blackjack) – the maximum prize combination in the game (payout 3 to 2), and at the same time its name.
Box – The name of the place to bet on the card tables in the casino, usually marked with a rectangle. The player has the right to simultaneously place bets on any of the free seven boxes. At the same time, on every box where a bet was made – play on a separate hand.
Blackjack Tournament (blackjack tournament) – a separate type of competition between blackjack players (each against a casino alone) with a limit on the bank and time for the game. The tournament prize pool is won by one or more of the best performing players.
Burn Cards (burned cards, demolition of the top cards) – the top cards of the deck (usually the first three), just the shuffled croupier and cut by the player, who are “burned” (removed from the game in the end, counting down the shirt). This is usually an additional safety measure. Depending on the rules of a particular institution, one top card of the deck remaining in the shoe can also be “burned” when changing the dealer at the table.
Bust, Break, Too many (busting) – player’s loss, when recruiting for boxing, more than 21 points. Having received a bust on any of the boxes, the player immediately loses a bet on it, regardless of whether the dealer has bust.
Cash Chips (cash tokens, cashchips, cash) – tokens with a constant and signed digital denomination, which are circulated in the casino instead of cash. These are the tokens used to play blackjack.
Cut the deck (raise the deck, remove, trim the deck) – 1) The player splits the cards of the shuffled deck into two parts, which are then swapped. It is offered to the player as an additional guarantee of pure randomness of the game results from the institution. 2) In ground institutions without shuffle machines – a mandatory procedure for the dealer
Cutting Card (katingcard, false card) – a special card made of plastic, does not participate in the game, serves to raise the deck by the player, as well as mark the dealer with the last distribution in games without using shuffle machines for land-based casinos
Dealer (dealer, croupier) – a casino employee, representing him and leading the game at the table.
Deck (standard card deck) – a standard deck of cards of 52 sheets. Sometimes in blackjack, under the “deck” may mean the totality of all the cards for the game, consisting of 6 (in some cases – 2, 5, or 8) standard decks.
Discard Tray (rebound, chipper, sump, card disc tray) – a special device (usually to the right of the dealer) for storing played cards. Not available on tables equipped with shuffle machines.
Double Deck Blackjack (two-deck blackjack) – a kind of blackjack with a deck of 104 cards (2 standard decks)
Double Down (doubling, double) – The ability for a player to double the bet on the box with the first two cards. In case of doubling the bet, only one card is added to the box with a double.
Double Exposure (a double exposure) – a kind of blackjack in which both cards of the dealer are open.
Draw, Hit, Card on … (another card, card on … [number of points on the box]) – The player’s request to the dealer for an additional box card.
Eight Deck Blackjack (eight-deck blackjack) – a variation of blackjack with a deck of 416 cards (8 standard decks)
Even Money (equal money) – Opportunity for a player to get paid to the boxes with blackjack 1 to 1 before starting a set of cards. Available with an ace from a dealer. If the player refuses equal money, he will receive a 3 to 2 payout if the dealer does not have blackjack, or a draw if any ten is the second dealer’s card.
Face Card, Paint (“pictures”, or “cards with faces”) – jacks, queens and queens. Each of these cards in blackjack has a face value of 10 points.
Face Down Game ( a blind game) is a type of blackjack where the first card is dealt to the player face up and the second face down.
Face Up Game (open-ended game) is a blackjack option in which all cards are dealt face up.
Five Card Charlie (five-card Charlie) – a box on which there were five cards without busting. For example, 2,4,5,6,7.
Floorman (inspector) – a competent casino employee, not leading the game at the table, but responsible for observing its rules and accuracy of payments.
Hard Ace (hard ace) – A situation where the ace on the hand can be equal to only 1 point (otherwise there is a bust)
Hard Hand – A hand with a hard ace.
Hole Card (closed card) – a card lying on the table face down
Insurance (insurance, insurance against blackjack) – a bet on an additional safety field offered to the player with an open ace, and, accordingly, the dealer is highly likely to blackjack. It is offered and accepted before the start of an additional set of cards. As much as possible you can insure only half of the total amount of bets made by the player on all boxes. If the player has made insurance and the dealer has blackjack –
Late Surrender (late rejection) – the player refuses to continue the game after the dealer checked the card and said that he did not have blackjack.
Multiple-Deck (multi-deck decks) – blackjack decks consisting of two or more standard card decks.
No double after Split (it is impossible to double after splitting) – it is forbidden for a player to double a bet after splitting a pair into two separate boxes.
Pat Hand (successful hand) – a hand with a number of points from 17 to 21.
Perfect Pairs (excellent pairs) – ext. bet that the first two cards of the player will be of equal value
Pit Boss (pit boss, pit boss) – a casino employee, a position of the lowest managerial level, directs dealers in the casino hall and controls the game at the tables.
Push, Stand Off, Tie (push, tie, standoff, expense at home, draw) – It’s not a good situation when the dealer and the player scored an equal amount of points. A bet on a box with a push is not taken, but not paid.
Resplit (replit, re-split) – additional division of cards after a previously made split.
Round (game round) – a cyclically repeating segment of the game process, from the beginning of accepting bets and cards, to the end of the payout.
Session (game session) – the total time spent playing without interruptions.
Shoe, Sabo (shuz, clogs) – a special box for a large deck, from which the dealer deals cards on blackjack.
Shuffle (shuffle, shuffling cards) – random shuffling of cards before the game.
Single Deck Blackjack (single-deck blackjack) – blackjack game with one standard deck of 52 cards.
Six Deck Blackjack (six-deck blackjack) is the classic and most common version of blackjack with a deck of 312 cards (6 standard decks).
Soft Hand – A hand with an ace that equates to 1 or 11 points.
Soft Double (soft double, soft hand double) – a player doubles a bet on a box with a soft hand.
Split (split, split, split, split) – a player splits the first two cards of the same value into two separate boxes by adding a bet.
Stand (stop, enough) – the player refuses an additional card.
Stand-off (draw) – when the player’s and dealer’s hands have the same value, the original bet is returned.
Stiff Card (small, small change, insignificant card) – an open card of the dealer, with a face value of 2 to 6.
Stiff Hand (void hand) – a player’s hand with a total score of 12 to 16.
Surrender (refusal of the game, surrender, shurenda, part-time care) – the player’s refusal to draw cards to the box and continue to play the game on it. It is possible exclusively on the first two cards and is usually not possible with an ace open at the dealer. If you refuse to play on the box, half of the initial bet on it is returned to the player, the other half goes to the casino bank.
Table Limits (table of table minimums and maximums) – a table indicating the maximum and minimum possible bets on each box of a given gaming table.